Home Technology What Is A Motherboard? What Are The Totally different Parts Of A Motherboard?

What Is A Motherboard? What Are The Totally different Parts Of A Motherboard?

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A motherboard acts as a platform for establishing connections between numerous elements which are required to run our laptop easily. It’s a printed circuit board (PCB) that homes all of the motherboard elements, both soldered or related discretely by way of enlargement slots. In different phrases, a motherboard will also be outlined as the fundamental constructing block of a pc.

As you may know, a regular laptop computer or a desktop laptop is made up of various issues such because the CPU, monitor, keyboard, mouse, and far more. All these elements discuss to one another by way of frequent {hardware} referred to as the motherboard or just mobo. Most customers don’t have a lot thought concerning the inexperienced coloured factor positioned inside their machine. So, the query, “What’s a Motherboard?” sounds curious to the ears.

Through the years, I’ve developed from a naive laptop consumer to the one who is aware of one thing concerning the digital gadgets which make our lives simpler. I’ll attempt to elaborate on the information that I’ve gained about what a motherboard is and what are the elements of a motherboard? So, let’s dive into the world of motherboards.

What’s a Motherboard?

A motherboard is principally a printed circuit board (PCB) used to attach completely different elements of a pc just like the central processing unit, reminiscence, laborious drive, printer, mouse, keyboard, graphics card, and different peripherals by way of bodily slots and interface connectors. If you happen to’ve ever opened up your machine, you may’ve noticed completely different traces getting in numerous instructions. These traces represent a circuit used to permit communication between completely different {hardware} gadgets hooked up to the motherboard – electrical indicators carrying information or data move by way of these traces. The movement of present within the printed circuit board is much like a traditional circuit, although, much less in voltage. The benefit is that it may be accommodated in much less house than the traditional one.

Historical past of Motherboard

The event of motherboards has been parallelly propelled with the arrival of microprocessors–your common CPU chip like Intel Core i5–in laptop machines. Earlier than the microprocessors, the computer systems housed a number of PCBs that had been related to one another by way of a backplane. A backplane is a parallel association {of electrical} connectors, every of them aligned with the opposite such that each pin from a connector will get linked with the relative pin of the opposite. This backplane was used to attach a number of PCBs collectively. Parts just like the central processing unit (CPU), reminiscence, and different peripherals had been related to completely different PCBs after which mixed utilizing the backplane.

Over time, with microprocessors coming into existence, these backplanes turned a factor of the previous, and numerous elements had been built-in instantly right into a single Printed Circuit Board. Thus, a single PCB, termed as Motherboard, was solely required for a pc.

Within the 1980s, corporations like Apple and IBM launched the documentation and blueprints of their motherboards. This was meant to permit the manufacturing of alternative motherboards for his or her widespread computer systems just like the Apple II and the IBM PC. The motherboards started to turn into extra consolidated however complicated on the similar time. Tremendous I/O (single ICs) chips began to exist within the motherboard within the late 80s, permitting help for low-speed peripherals like mouse, keyboard, floppy drive, and so on.

Because the clock began approaching the millennium yr, the necessity for enlargement slots was eradicated for the elements like video, storage, audio, and community adapters by embedding them into the motherboard. Presently, the motherboards have taken a leap to a stage the place virtually negligible modifications will be made after a motherboard is manufactured. The dimensions of the motherboard has decreased drastically over the previous couple of many years and should proceed to shrink down additional.

How massive is a Motherboard?parts of motherboard

Relying on the shape issue, motherboards can have completely different sizes and styles. Usually, all varieties of motherboards are designed based on predefined specs making a similarity between the motherboards manufactured by completely different corporations. Nevertheless, the scale could differ to a small extent, from model to model.

ATX, developed by Intel, is probably the most extensively used configuration specification for desktop motherboards, which is carried out by virtually all the foremost producers.

MiniPC is a type issue specification given for small-sized computer systems just like the Apple Mac Mini and Intel NUC. These machines are used for primary computing wants like internet browsing, phrase processing, video playback, and so on. Nevertheless, development in know-how has made these machines greater than an web browsing machine.

Additionally Learn: What’s DNS (Area Title System) and The way it Works?

What’s inside a Motherboard?

  • Reminiscence Slots
  • CPU Sockets
  • Chipset
  • Clock Generator
  • Enlargement Card Slots
  • Storage Connectors
  • Energy Connectors
  • Warmth Sink/Cooling System

After taking a look at how motherboards have developed over time, let speak about of a number of the motherboard elements intimately.

Reminiscence Slotsmotherboard memory slots

These are the lengthy slots hooked up to the motherboard to put in DIMM chips on the pc. DIMM stands for Twin Inline Reminiscence Module, which consists of DRAM built-in circuits. The Dynamic Random Entry Reminiscence (DRAM) is a risky reminiscence that shops the info and recordsdata being executed by the CPU. Many variants of DRAM exist like DDR, DDR2, DDR3, DDR4, and extra lately DDR5.

Principally, RAM slots are designed in such a approach which you can solely insert the reminiscence chip in a single specific orientation.

For reference, earlier machines between the 1980s and late 1990s used SIMM (Single Inline Reminiscence Module) sort reminiscence modules.


You may’ve heard phrases like LGA 1150 or AM3+. Getting the proper socket sort for a processor is a typical dilemma confronted after we assemble a pc, for instance, a desktop machine. So, what precisely is a socket? A socket is a spot the place the microprocessor or CPU sits on the motherboard. As a result of socket, a microprocessor doesn’t have to be soldered to the motherboard. We are able to take away it anytime, as per our will.

The kind of sockets generally used are:

LGA (Land Grid Array) – On this, the pins are current on the socket.

PGA (Pin Grid Array) – On this, the pins are current on the CPU chip.

ZIF (Zero Insertion Drive) – On this, whereas inserting the CPU chip, the contacts on the socket are made free by lifting a lever. Thus, the CPU will get fitted simply.

The LGA sort sockets are primarily utilized by Intel whereas, AMD makes use of the PGA-ZIF sort sockets. Let’s take the instance of Intel; they make many socket variants. The distinction comes within the pin association. That’s why we now have to be very cautious whereas deciding the CPU and socket sort.

Moreover, relying on the mannequin, motherboards include multiple CPU sockets for machines that require extra processing energy.



It’s an IC current on the motherboard that’s chargeable for making a communication channel between the CPU and numerous elements like reminiscence, and peripheral gadgets related to the motherboard. And not using a chipset, all of the completely different elements won’t be able to speak to the central processing unit, and this can instantly have an effect on the efficiency of the pc. The chipset consists of two elements:

Northbridge which is instantly hooked up to the CPU by way of the entrance aspect bus (FSB). It makes use of the reminiscence controller to contact the RAM chip to switch information between CPU and RAM. Along with this, it additionally establishes communication with the PCI Categorical bus.

Southbridge hyperlinks to the USB ports, SATA interface. It doesn’t instantly report to the CPU, and all the knowledge has to move by way of the northbridge earlier than reaching the CPU.

Clock Generatordesktop pc clock generator

The essential operation of a clock generator is to synchronize the operations of various elements of a motherboard. It generates a clock sign that jumps between excessive and low frequencies, thus making a metronome for the coordination of actions. I gained’t leap into its depth to let you know the technicalities.

Enlargement Card Slots

You could be acquainted with the time period PCI (Peripheral Part Interconnect). It’s used to put in further elements like Wi-fi adapters, graphics playing cards, and so on. PCI is an enlargement bus that’s used to switch information between the pc (i.e., CPU and RAM) and the related peripheral gadgets.

A bus will be understood as a path by way of which the info travels. The time period refers to each the software program and the {hardware} required to switch information. A bus has two elements, the deal with bus, which passes the details about the place the info ought to go, and the information bus that carries the precise information to be transferred.

Fashionable motherboards embody the PCIe (PCI Categorical) slots that are an improve over the traditional PCI and PCI-X enlargement bus requirements.

Storage Connectors

Motherboards are geared up with connectors for attaching storage gadgets like magnetic laborious drives, optical drives, and SSDs. These gadgets work by way of an interface referred to as SATA. SATA or Serial ATA can be a pc bus that allows a connection between the storage media and the pc by way of the host bus adapters current on the motherboard.

Varied SATA variations, specifically SATA 3.2, mSATA, eSATA, and so on., exist and are used relying on the configuration of the machine. For instance, mSATA or mini-SATA is used for SSDs and laborious drives put in on laptops.


Computer systems have a essential energy provide unit, nevertheless it’s not doable to ship energy to all of the elements instantly from it. Therefore, energy connectors are used to distribute the ability from the primary provide to numerous elements like RAM, CPU, chipset, and enlargement playing cards.

Some trendy enlargement playing cards just like the high-end graphics playing cards require extra energy, which may’t be offered by the primary energy connectors of the pc. So, these graphics playing cards include their very own energy connectors to get the correct amount {of electrical} energy.

Motherboards even have Flash ROM, which is a non-volatile reminiscence chip used to retailer the BIOS of the system. Aside from these, further elements just like the USB (Common Service Bus), disk controllers, ethernet controllers, and so on. exist on the motherboard. Fashionable motherboards even have built-in graphic chips (like Intel HD Graphics) and sound playing cards which are instantly soldered on them. The interior graphics playing cards are able to dealing with the fundamental graphics processing of the machine and supply video output by way of VGA and HDMI ports.

Warmth Sink or Cooling System

You may need heard concerning the frying of motherboards because of excessive working temperatures. Improper temperatures within the case of motherboards could result in a discount in efficiency and decrease life expectancy over the course of time. Therefore, numerous gadgets like the warmth sink and cooling followers have been designed to carry down the temperature when the warmth is generated by the motherboard elements.

Whereas most laptop are air-cooled, you too can add trendy liquid cooling methods that may bear extra warmth when utilizing power-hungry apps and video video games.

So, that’s all I learn about Motherboards. If I’ve failed to incorporate some main factors, please let me know within the feedback part beneath.

Additionally Learn: How To Examine CPU Temp? 5 Helpful Methods To Repair CPU Overheating Points

Often Requested Questions

What motherboard do I’ve?

Now, you could be curious sufficient to know what motherboard is put in in your laptop. Nicely, there are a number of methods to do this however the best one is utilizing the System Info software in Home windows 10 (or older variations). For that, open Begin Menu > sort System Info. Within the System Info window, choose System Abstract within the left pane. Right here, you’ll discover the motherboard labeled as “System Producer” and “System Mannequin.”
 What motherboard do I have check specs

What’s the perfect temperature of a motherboard?

The perfect working temperature for motherboards (or PC) is round 45 to 50-degree Celsius however it may well go up whereas enjoying video games or utilizing heavy apps. Your laptop gained’t be proud of you in case you don’t equip it with an acceptable cooling system, elevating the temperature above insupportable limits.

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